In vitro: Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate is a potent inhibitor of autophagy. It prevents lysosomal acidification, thereby interfering with a key step in the autophagic process. HCQ treatment inhibits RCC (renal cell cancer) cell growth, promotes apoptosis, inhibits mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and increases rates of glycolysis.
In vivo: The treatment of Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate reduces the infarct size in an in vivo rat model of I/R injury and the cardioprotective effect of Hydroxychloroquine is ERK1/2 dependent. In addition, Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate shows an early vascular protective effect. HCQ seems to prevent the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction(ED) in treated animals.
 Ramser B, et al.J Invest Dermatol, 2009,129(10):2419-26.
 Lee HO, et al. PLoS One. 2015, 10(7): e0131464.
 Bourke L, et al. PLoS One. 2015, 10(12):e0143771.
 Marta Mosca, et al. 2013 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting.